Temple rose from the “high research activity,” or R2, category to “highest research activity,” or R1, placing it among the top four percent of all four-year institutions in the nation [see sidebar 1]. Carnegie reviews national research universities on a five-year cycle, classifying them by the productivity and scale of the research enterprise. It is a performance-based ranking based on national benchmark data. Classifications are not influenced by peer input or other rankings. The university’s research expenditures have reached a record $242 million, putting it in the top 100 for research spending according to the National Science Foundation (NSF).